The RCA-Project – Recycled concrete aggregates for industrial-scale concrete production

Katja Udbye Christensen

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The RCA-Project – Recycled concrete aggregates for industrial-scale concrete production

Project start December 2017. Completed December 2020.


Every year more than 2 million tons of concrete waste is generated in Denmark, most of which has been recycled and used as aggregates in base or subbase course. However, the increasing attention to circular resource economy strategies sparked an interest in reuse and recycling of building materials back into their original value chains. In the case of recycled concrete aggregates for new concrete production, there exist many isolated demonstrated projects in Denmark where recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) was used – with dispensation from the national regulations regarding the limits of replacement. Building on top of these projects, the RCA-Project takes it a step further by creating the technical, environmental, regulatory and market basis for industrial production of concrete with recycled concrete aggregates in Denmark.

Project objectives

The RCA-Project aims to create the first example of a fully-circular concrete production in industrial scale in Denmark; such objective will be reached through the following developments:

  • optimized processes for classification, sorting, and reprocessing of the crushed concrete so fine and coarse aggregates from concrete waste are suitable for certification
  • optimized mix designs of ready mixed concrete (RMC) using RCA in several environmental classes
  • pre-normative standards for EN 1992-1-1 and EN 206 based on the project’s results
  • a basis for evaluating the sustainability of concrete when natural aggregates are replaced with RCA.


  • RGS Nordic A/S (project leader), DK
  • DK Beton A/S, DK
  • Danish Technological Institute (subcontractor), DK
  • Theo Pouw Groep (subcontractor), NL